Project the “Great Ideas” transparency (or reproduce it as a handout). He also notes that liberty cannot be secure where there is no separation of powers, even in a republic. Lesson #2 of 5 in the Age of Reason & Revolution Unit -- 11 slide PowerPoint presentation based lesson covering: - Causes and major changes that contributed to the Enlightenment movement - Major political theories of Enlightenment thinkers/philosophers that regularly appear on the NYS Global Reg He campaigned to eradicate priestly and aristocratic-monarchical authority, and supported a constitutional monarchy that protects people’s rights. Voltaire. Today, Wollstonecraft is regarded as one of the founding feminist philosophers, and feminists often cite both her life and work as important influences. Start studying Chapter 21 The Enlightenment and Revolutions - Lesson 2. Rather, he believed a legitimate contract could easily exist between citizens and a monarchy, an oligarchy, or in some mixed form. Despite advocating the idea of absolutism of the sovereign, he developed some of the fundamentals of European liberal thought. Page 1. Students also respond to 2 short answer questions regarding Enlightenment. It was almost immediately released in a second edition in 1792, several American editions appeared, and it was translated into French. Montesquieu argues that the executive, legislative, and judicial functions of government (the so-called tripartite system) should be assigned to different bodies, so that attempts by one branch of government to infringe on political liberty might be restrained by the other branches (checks and balances). Locke’s political theory was founded on social contract theory. The debate continues among scholars over the disparities between Locke’s philosophical arguments and his personal involvement in the slave trade and slavery in North American colonies, and over whether his writings provide, in fact, justification of slavery. He was troubled by poor eyesight and was completely blind by the time he died from a high fever in 1755. 2. Until the late 20th century, however, Wollstonecraft’s life, received more attention than her writing. The Second Treatise outlines a theory of civil society. Condorcet worked with Leonhard Euler and Benjamin Franklin. Hobbes objected to the attempt to derive rights from ” natural law,” arguing that law (“lex”) and right (“jus”) though often confused, signify opposites, with law referring to obligations, while rights refer to the absence of obligations. 6. Thomas Hobbes. His relationships with various women had important impacts on his life choices (e.g., temporary conversion to Catholicism) and inspired many of his writings. He had been an indifferent student, but during his 20s, which were marked by long bouts of hypochondria, he applied himself to the study of philosophy, mathematics, and music. The book was originally published anonymously partly because Montesquieu’s works were subject to censorship, but its influence outside France grew with rapid translation into other languages. Wollstonecraft addresses her text to the middle class, which she describes as the “most natural state,” and in many ways the Rights of Woman is inflected by a bourgeois view of the world. Have students click the link to watch the 7 minute video, The Enlightenment Thinkers. According to Hobbes, society is a population beneath a sovereign authority, to whom all individuals in that society cede some rights for the sake of protection. 3. Voltaire had an enormous influence on the development of historiography through his demonstration of fresh new ways to look at the past. Therefore, any government that rules without the consent of the people can, in theory, be overthrown. This marked an important departure from medieval natural law theories which gave precedence to obligations over rights. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (22) ... Modern _____ began in the late eighteenth century when some Enlightenment thinkers argued that _____ was a natural right for women as well as men. Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness. Enlightenment thinkers believed that human beings are born with fundamental, basic rights. Voltaire. Writers of the enlightenment tended to focus on government, ethics, and science, rather than on imagination, emotions, or religion. His mother died several days after he was born, and after his father remarried a few years later, Jean-Jacques was left with his maternal uncle, who packed him away, along with his own son, to board for two years with a Calvinist minister in a hamlet outside Geneva. Rousseau. Great Concepts: Nationalism (Docs) Great Leaders: Otto von Bismarck (Docs) Hollywood Squares (Slides) Timeline: Unit 10.2 Enlightenment, Nationalism, & Revolutions (Slides) 7th Grade: Modern World History 1500-2016 Unit 2: Age of Enlightenment Unit 2: Age of Enlightenment Mary_Wollstonecraft_by_John_Opie_c._1797 1.jpg. His decision to place his five children (born from a long-term domestic partnership with Thérèse Levasseur) in a shelter for abandoned children was widely criticized by his contemporaries and generations to come, particularly in light of his progressive works on education. He launched a career as a mathematician, soon reaching international fame. Activity Big Idea/Question: What are the enduring effects of the ideas of the Enlightenment philosophers on the worldwide political expectation for self-government and individual liberty? This division is necessary because the sovereign cannot deal with particular matters like applications of the law. Review the causes, stages, and effects of the French Revolution. Key people: John Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Voltaire. These activities were to result in two imprisonments and a temporary exile to England. In. Locke never married nor had children. Do Enlightenment thinkers believe in divine right? Show the Study.com video lesson The Enlightenment Thinkers & Their Ideas. Locke fled to the Netherlands in 1683, under strong suspicion of involvement in the Rye House Plot, although there is little evidence to suggest that he was directly involved in the scheme. Even Mary Wollstonecraft, a British writer and philosopher who attacked gender oppression, pressed for equal educational opportunities, and demanded “justice” and “rights to humanity” for all, did not go as far as to demand equal political rights for women. Democracy implied free citizens and ignorance was the source of servitude. Be overthrown between the absolute sovereign and the Constitution of the day, Rousseau looked a! 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